Defining terrorism has been difficult, because domestic and international terrorists use acts of violence to promote political or social change, and political ideology is judged relative to one's political beliefs and desires.
From 1789 to 1794, members of a radical society or Jacobins' club of revolutionaries promoted the Reign of Terror and other extreme measures were activated. French revolutionaries used terror as a remedy for political transformation; The Terror the Order of the Day or Que la Terreur soit a L'ordre du jour (Carlyle, 2002) was designed as a temporary domestic policy oriented on suppression of the enemies of the French Revolution, but its legacy provided international implications for more than 2 centuries.
The original purpose of terror was to eliminate any opposition to the revolutionary Jacobins' regime and to consolidate power. The latest applications of governmental or state terrorism can be found in Soviet Russia (Civil War, 1918-1921), Communist China (Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, 1966-1969), Cambodia (Khmer Rouge Regime, 1975-1979).
From the French revolutionaries who employed the strategies of international terrorism against European countries to Russian terrorists that carried us into the 19th and 20th centuries, we can observe a steady trend to gain political and ideological objectives. Marxism reinforced this orientation.
Considerable numbers of leftist and right wing terrorist organizations were formed in the late 1960s in Europe, including Germany's Red Army Faction (RAF), France's Action Directe, Italy's Red Brigades, and German neo-Nazism.
Different countries and different government agencies do not define terrorism in the same way. From a legal standpoint, terrorism is not by itself the crime. Rather, terrorism is a way of describing the nature of certain kinds of fairly traditional criminal acts. These might include murder, kidnapping, rape and torture, arson, and bombing. When these crimes are used-together or separately- to create a general climate of fear and terror, terrorism has occurred.
The first recorded definition of terrorism was given in the 1795 supplement of the Dictionaire of the Academe Francais as system regieme de la terror. The Jacobins used the term when speaking and writing about themselves. Today, we can try the following definitions:
- Premeditated, politically-motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.
- The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.
- It is the unlawful use or threat of violence against persons or property to further political or social objectives. It is generally intended to intimidate or coerce a government, individuals or groups to modify their behavior or policies.
DOMESTIC PERPETRATORS OF TERRORISM
Extremist elements of right-wing groups
- Personal revenge
- Mentally unstable
- Government overflow
- Prank threats
FOREIGN PERPETRATORS OF TERRORISM
SOURCE: Federal Bureau of Investigation Office of Domestic Terrorism and Counterterrorism Planning.
- State-sponsored terrorism
- Terrorist organizations
- Loosely affiliated extremist groups
TERRORITS: People who use violence and fear in a effort to panic or punish groups, institutions, or countries that they perceive as perpetrating social injustice.
DOMESTIC TERRORISM: Act of terrorism committed by citizens of the country being terrorized. Three acts of domestic terrorism most often encountered by local and state police are (1) acts of violence committed by militias and extremist groups or individuals, (2) violence against abortion clinics and personnel, and (3) ecoterrorism - violent destruction of the environment or natural resources on which people depend, such as the water we drink or the air we breathe, including the release of disease organism into the environment.
INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM: Terrorism involving citizens or territory of more than one country. There are three basic organizational levels of international terrorism:
- Individual international terrorism often has criminal motivation (e.g., revenge, intimidation, and any other personal motives). It is close to organized crime activities. It is difficult to detect this form of terrorist. Mentally retarded individuals carried out some individual international acts.
- Group terrorism (or Terrorist Group) requires organization and some type of leadership, recruitment, training, and retention of members. It means any group practicing, or that has significant subgroups that practice, international terrorism.
- State terrorism is one of the political tools utilized by a government, which establishes a specific agency or uses a legitimate state institution for gaining domestic or international benefits for the regime.
These definitions are not accurate because, for example, stealing of diplomatic mail should be included in them. International terrorism is a term describing the utilization of fear and intimidation, including violence, brutality, and invasion of privacy, across national boundaries with the purpose of political, social, economic, ideological, religious, ethnic, or cultural change.
The concept of traditional International terrorism requires the mobilization of political, financial, and industrial resources for the development and production of modern homeland security and defense. It is expensive because instead of a front we have an unlimited number of potential targets.
Typology of International Terrorism
|a) Social revolutionary
d) Religious fundamentalist
e) State sponsored
f) Organized crime
h) Left/right extremism
a) Connection to
b) Acts transcend
religion in general,
or home targets of
foreign origin such
as riots against
shelters, and the
such acts were
instigated, by the State
Coup d’ Etat,
Social and political
pressure on the